Buccaneers usually had permission from powers hostile toward Spain to attack Spanish cities and ships. This permission allowed the buccaneers to use navy warships and army troops to carry out the attacks and was given with the understanding that only the Spanish were to be attacked. But what happened when England, France, and the Netherlands made peace with Spain? The buccaneers had become accustomed to stealing for a living and were not about to give up a lucrative lifestyle. Thus they turned against everyone, becoming “the enemies of all mankind.” Every nation and every ship was to be the target of the pirates. The years 1700–1730 were to be the Golden Age of Piracy.