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Strachey's A Dictionarie of the Indian Language

Smith's Vocabulary of Indian words

Weroances and Their Tribes

English Observers

William Strachey' s Description of Critters in the Chesapeake Bay

Henry Spelman, Relation of Virginia, 1609


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Did the English establish any other settlements?

The arrival of part of Lord de la Warr's fleet, in September 1609, brought a few provisions and more people. Smith decided there was a need to establish English settlements outside Jamestown. A group of settlers under Captain John Martin, settled in Nansemond tribal territory. Negotiations for an inhabited island resulted in the disappearance of two English messengers. Martin then had half of his men take the island by force and had the people on the island and their temple destroyed. The Nansemond made repeated attacks on the settlers. After realizing that military aid would not be forthcoming from Jamestown, Martin's men straggled home, though not all made it. Some were ambushed in Nansemond territory while others went to Kecoughtan for refuge and were ambushed.

Francis West took a large force of Englishmen to the falls of the James River and built a fort in the Powhatan Town's territory. Parahunt, the weroance of Powhatan Town, and his men began raiding the fort. Captain John Smith came to negotiate the ownership of Powhatan Town, but when he left, raids on the fort resumed. Eventually, West's people gave up and returned to Jamestown.

Tragedy struck John Smith when he was returning from Powhatan Town. He was badly burned in a powder explosion. When he arrived in Jamestown, he found that he had been replaced as president, the office he had held since early fall of 1608. Discouraged and in pain, he sailed for England on October 4, 1609. In October 1609, the English established a fort at Old Point Comfort, which they named Fort Algernon. In September 1609, Captain John Ratcliffe was invited to Orapax, Powhatan's new capital. When he sailed up the Pamunkey River to trade there, a fight broke out between the colonists and the Powhatans. All of the English were killed, including Ratcliffe, who was tortured by the women of the tribe.



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